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Comodoro Rivadavia pier and the the 'Rada Tilly' or Punta Piedras line

In the 1920s, when Comodoro Rivadavia's oil reserves were becoming increasingly important, it was decided that the town needed a much more substantial sheltered harbour rather than the existing muelles. A very solid breakwater was to be constructed and in addition a large area of land south of the breakwater was to be reclamed from the sea.

Preliminary works seems to have started in 1922, with the major civil engineering taking place later in the decade, hindered by regular shortages of money and consequent design changes.. Whilst 60cm gauge track and locos were used particularly for very temporary lines, 75cm gauge equipment was also brought from the usual source at Puerto Madryn. This implies that the original network plans were already seem as less important by then.

Right from the beginning, the 75cm. gauge seems to have been regarded as semi-permanent. Photographs on this page show properly built lines, rather than light contractors' tracks. In practice the system seems to have lasted for thirty years or so.

The focal points of the works were the new breakwater and some land reclamation to the south-west. However, the tracks extended both north and south from there. To the north 75cm. gauge track ran to the main railway workshops at Km. 5, where a mixed gauge loco shed was constructed. To the south the line stretched out 12 or 15 kms. to a quarry, Punta Piedra and towards Rada Tilly. This was intitially the source of the land reclamation material, but the line eventually gained a passenger service. .

The map below, though unclear, shows the main features of the port area. The broad gauge (in red) starts just off the map to the left. It runs due east past the station (green), before curving north to follow the coast as far as Km 5. Sidings also stretch east from the station out onto the 1928 concrete muelle. The 75cm gauge (blue) arrives from Rada Tilly at the south west corner of the map; it continues north-eastward with a number of sidings out on the reclaimed area before turning due east to proceed onto the muelle. The two largest buildings shown (yellow) are the 'galpones aduanas' or customs warehouses. The more easterly of these appears in a number of photos below.

The photo below shows a Baldwin 2-8-2, presumably no. 24 or 25, at the end of a rake of 1922-built wagons in the playa de materiales at the shore end of the port. Despite the battered state of one of the wagons, this picture was taken early on before the breakwater had been completed. The absence of the hammerhead crane shows that it must only have been erected in time to assist with the construction of the outermost parts of the works. This picture is reproduced by courtesy of the Archivo General de la Nación in Buenos Aires. It was almost certainly taken from the roof of galpon 1.

 

 

An almost identical viewpoint (below) but sometime later, after the Titan crane had been erected in 1932.

 

 

Baldwinfromabove

 

This first picture shows the first of the new galpons (warehouses) under construction in about 1928. The new concrete pier stretches out left of centre, though not yet with its hammerhead crane. To the right can be seen a pair of 75cm tracks running parallel to the broad gauge, and with a loop sweeping round to the south of the new galpon. The picture may well have been taken from the top of the main station building; it is reproduced by courtesy of Miguel Fiordelli.

MFCRgalponconstr1

A similar shot but with one of the two Baldwins and a couple of rakes of plataformas (8).

CR75Baldwinwagons

A year or two later, and the galpon is complete (far left) whilst a new sea wall has been built to protect the area to be reclaimed. Far right is the station.

Land reclamation
To the south of the new pier an area of shallow water was reclaimed from the sea. A 'muro de contencion' or defensive concrete wall was built on the south shoal or 'restinga sur', and then material brought in by the 75cm gauge trains was dumped behind it to fill the space.

Now the reclamation starts. Here are two lines of wagons occupying sidings, and a line off to the right which is the loop mentioned above, curving around the galpon from which this picture was taken.

CRlandreclamation

 

 

An aerial view, also from Señor Fiordelli's website, shows the reclaimed area now in use. The original galpon is at the foot of the photo and the two sidings shown above appear to remain in more permanent form.

 

 

The route southward
The route originally started directly from the port, as the main reason for the route's construction was to bring fill for the reclamation works and gravel for concrete. Later on the line seems to have been diverted into the main Comodoro Rivadavia broad gauge station so that passenger traffic could be integrated into the larger system and so that locomotives and stock could proceed northward to the workshops at Km 5 for stabling and repair.

Heading southward, the route passed around the sea side of the first reclaimed area and then followed the natural coastline for about 1500m before heading slightly further inland, though still close to the coast. At this point there was an'apeadero' or halt opposite the Escuela Presidente Juan D. Peron. This may have been close to the beach still known as 'Playa 99', from the 'campamento' of the same title. After this, at about 3,500m from Comodoro Rivadavia station, there was a left hand curve bringing the line back closer to the coast. A further two kilometres took trains to an initial destination at Punta Piedras about 6.250 km from the start. In 1952 a further kilometre of track was brought into use, with a turning balloon instead of the triangle that had characterised the original terminus. There was a large hotel somewhere at this end of the line...

Although some sources suggest the line actually reached Rada Tilly, this was not actually true. The headland of Punta Piedras is a major obstacle, impossible to climb over and unlikely to have justified the major earthworks needed to get around at near sea level.

This map shows the line curving around the outside of the newly reclaimed land, before following the coast and later making a detour inland around 'Campamento 99'.

 

 

MapofCRshowing75cmline

 

Another map implies that the track initially ran more directly south-west from the main FCE station. It should be noted that the reclamation proposed on this sheet never took place. This undated map shows a proposal to extend the town substantially out across the 'restinga sur' reef. Whilst the work was never undertaken to this extent, the map may give an indication of the route of the 75cm gauge railway and certainly the 'pozo 99' (well 99) gives a clear indication of how the later 'campamento 99' and 'playa 99' names may have arisen.

 

SAm2000ComRiv010

A view from the south-west shows the narrow coastal strip along which the line passed. On the original, though not perhaps on screen, the single line of narrow gauge track can be seen to follow the sea walls of the reclaimed land in the distance before turning south and paralleling the shore towards the photographer. This is a Ministerio de Obras Publicas photo from the Archivo General de la Nación in Buenos Aires.

ComRivfromsouth

The original purpose of the 75cm gauge was to bring fill material from a site away south near Punta Piedras along the coast to the reclamation sites including the new port. The unique view below shows the big new Orenstein & Koppel steam face-shovel being transported from its landing, presumably at the Maciel muelle to be erected at the site where the fill was to be excavated (8).

CR75ExcavatorCKDontrain

The picture below, kindly provided by Bernhard Stöckhert from an unknown source, shows BLW 2-8-2 no. 24 on a train of eight of the 4000 series plataformas, at what is presumably the source of landfill material, in 1929. A 7000 series tank wagon is far right. Another wagon is at bottom left but this may have been 60cm gauge for both gauges were used in this work. The loco is facing north with the sea in the background.

BSCR1929Baldwin

 

A similar scene but showing the contract's O&K steam-powered face shovel excavator in the background.

 

 

Baldwinontrainbeingloaded

 

An Orenstein & Koppel steam excavator, as illustrated in the O&K / Koppel Argentina catalogue.

 

OKexcavator

The breakwater
The most interesting feature shown in the photos below was that the huge Skoda-built hammerhead crane, used to build the further parts of the breakwater and to manhandle heavy equipment thereafter, ran on 75cm. gauge tracks - albeit two lines of them! The crane lasted until the late 1980s.

The photo below shows the crane, and two types of track - a carefully laid double line of 75cm gauge for the crane, and two separate broad gauge lines. The photographer was standing atop a broad gauge wagon.

This view looking down from the crane shows how solidly built the narrow gauge tracks were - probably with heavy-duty broad gauge rails. The breakwater is still under construction and in the centre several men tip concrete (?) into the central gap. A possible 60cm gauge track section also appears bottom left. The apparent curve to the left shows that this is out at the very far end of the works.

 

 

Whilst the photo below shows broad gauge wagons being unloaded by the hammerhead crane on the pier in 1943, it also shows that the 75cm track was not just for the crane's use. On the right the 75cm track clearly has a set of points in it, for use by locomotives and wagons. If these were ordinary points as they appear, then the crane cannot have had double flanged wheels as one would expect.

 

 

CRunloadingwagonswithTitan1943

Steam locomotives
Two Baldwin 2-8-2s were brought down from Puerto Madryn, nos. 24 and 25. These locos have never been recorded anywhere else since so they may have ended their days at this location.

The photo below shows a Baldwin, still with its bell, between Kms 4 and 5 at the northern end of the system. Note also the substantial bridge works. The photo is reported to have been taken in 1932 (2).

 

 

CRBaldwinoverculvert

An unidentified 1934 source lists the Rada Tilly line as using FCP locos, but at another time there were supposed to be two 18ton locos and one 12ton loco on the 75cm gauge (1). The Baldwin 2-8-2s weighed 47tons. It is possible that a Henschel 0-6-0T (12 tonnes empty) or an 0-8-0CT (16 tonnes empty) were brought from Puerto Madryn for a while, though these are all accounted for elsewhere later on.

The locos were eventually stabled at Km. 5 where there was a purpose-built joint broad gauge and 75cm shed with three roads for the narrow gauge. Interestingly, the broad gauge turntable at Comodoro Rivadavia station (which existed until fairly recently) had an inner set of 75cm gauge rails, for turning the Baldwins or possibly the railcars mentioned below.

The dual gauge turntable was photographed in 1992 by Bernhard Stöckhert.. It still exists, as a monument to those killed on the 1953 accident, and can be found in the Plaza España west of the bus station.

 

 

A 1956 FC Patagonico data sheet for Comodoro Rivadavia lists Henschel 2-8-2 no. 120 as being on this line, but not either of the Baldwins mentioned above. It is possible that there was a major rethink after the 1953 accident mentioned below, and that no. 120 was brought in at that point.

 

A diesel?
The photo below seems to show a diesel of some kind shunting a rake of the 1922 wagons. This is O&K class RL8 0-6-0 no. 20949 of 1937, which was constructed for 750mm gauge and delivered to Cia. Introductora de Buenos Aires (7).

 

RadaTillylinediesel

 

Only three of this class were ever built, the other two being for Cyprus. James Waite recently took a photo of one of these others and we are grateful for his permission to display it here in order to show more clearly what the loco at Comodoro would have looked like.

 

OKdieselinCyprusJW

 

Wagons
The wagons in the photo below, taken at the same time as one of the pictures above during the reclamation work, would appear to be of the standard Familleureux 4000 series low-sided wagons. At least eight of these are visible in the photos mentioned above. One or two of these 'plataformas' were still around in 1975 and 1992, though much earlier in the mid 1950s the management at Puerto Madryn had called for all spare stock in Comodoro Rivadavia to be returned to the FCCC. Two 'furgon cargas' are also visible above and one was still present in 1975. Two tank wagons appear in one of the photos.

The 1945 FCE lists are missing 19 plataformas, 2 'furgon cargas', 1 'cubierto' boxcar, 1 'hacienda 1 piso' livestock car, and 3 tank wagons. It is probable that most or all of these reached this railway.

CR756

This picture of workers south-west of the playa de materiales also shows a line of 75cm gauge plataformas on the left. They are identifiable as 1922 Familleureux stock from Puerto Madryn.

MFCR75cmwagons

 

Passenger traffic
By the time that the reclamation work finished Comodoro Rivadavia was growing rapidly along the coast to the south. It seems likely that the decision was made to keep the railway running on a more public basis and with proper passenger services. It is still not clear who was responsible for the line. The Ministerio de Obras Públicas seem never to have formally handed it over to the state railways, though the broad and narrow gauge loco sheds were adjacent to one another at Km. 3 and there was several miles of mixed gauge track to maintain. In the 1950s the stock of the line sometimes appeared in FCE lists. There was one intermediate halt, at the 'Escuela Hogar Presidente Peron'.

At the end of 1952 the route was extended by about half a kilometre, up to the deep Arroyo Virgenes which formed a practical boundary just before the Punta Piedras headland. A turning balloon was constructed at the new terminus, replacing a triangle which had been located at the previous railhead. A number of minor alterations to the other end of the route were proposed at the same time, though whether they were actually constructed is uncertain. They were principally intended to ease curves and to reduce conflict with other users of the main station and yard in Comodoro. It appears that the Ministerio de Obras Públicas was also trying to transfer responsibility for the line to the Military Governor of the area at around the same time, in 1954 the line was, quoted as 'pertenecía a la Dirección General de Puertos' within the responsibility of the MOP.

Railcars and passenger coaches
A photo shows railcars being unloaded from a ship onto the 75cm gauge. They are of the batches built at Puerto Madryn. Two cars can be seen, one of the very angular shape and a second with the more rounded body end style. Another commentator suggests that the line had three such coche motors, but without giving any source for this.

The photo referred to in the preceding paragraph. Note the life-buoy mounted on the furgon to the right.

CRunloadingcoches

There was a passenger service provided out to the terminus. In February 1953 a very serious accident occurred to a Sunday railcar returning from Punta Piedras. Running too fast downhill at 'Playa de 99' (Km. 4.250 from Comodoro Rivadavia station), it left the rails and about 25 passengers were killed and the remainder injured (3). Ricardo das Neves writes (4) that his father had gone out to Rada Tilly that Sunday, it being a very pleasant day. He missed the last coche motor back and started to walk. Rounding a corner he came upon the accident. Apparently the driver was said to have been drunk and on a passenger complaining about the speed he accellerated further rather than slowing down. The casualty list grew even longer after the coach fell as it was being righted whilst passengers were still aboard. The car was said to be a 48 seater, though actually carrying 75. Coche-motor 52 was the vehicle involved, on train no. 130.

This frightening picture shows the remaining fragments of coche motor no. 52 after the accident (8). The track is presumably on the embankment to the left, ie on which the cameraman was standing. The view is towards the north-east, with the sea in the background and Cerro Chenque looming out of the haze left of centre. The car had been returning to Comodoro Rivadavia, and must thus have been travelling from right to left. Nevertheless the cow-catcher ('pilot' in US parlance) is facing right. Was the car running backwards, despite there being a turning balloon at Punta Piedras, or did it get turn around completely during the accident? The photo shows car 52 to have been one of those with rounded corners and a single winscreen, albeit with a replacement wooden cow-catcher similar to those used on locomotives.

accidentpic

The 1956 FCP data sheet from three years after the accident lists coche motors nos. 52 and 4 as out of service - for dismantling. The same sheet lists 1st class coach 1104, and second class coaches nos. 1207 and 1210, in service. Each of these had been at Puerto Madryn in earlier years and it is again possible that they were brought to Comodoro Rivadavia as a direct result of the accident.

The latter years.
The passenger service gets a mention in 1955 when the need for better railcars is set out in a FC Patagónico report. The same document suggests that redundant 75cm gauge material in Comodoro Rivadavia belonging to the Ministerio de Obras Públicas should be returned to Puerto Madryn for re-use on the FCCC. The ownership of the line is confusing; whilst it seems to have been operated by the ministry initially rather than the FC del Estado, its length of 7.1km appears in 1950s 'Estadistica' reports added to the other Patagonian public railways, and some but not all of the stock is listed in a 1956 FC Patagonico data sheet.

A recent reference seems to imply that the 1953 accident led eventually to the suspension of passenger services (5). Certainly the possibility of closure was being discussed by 1955. However, the final closure was on August 20 1958 (6). Most of the tracks were removed very quickly after that, but in 1975 there was still some 75cm track around the harbour and one or two wagons. There was no sign of any operation.

Surviving relics
Unlike most other Patagonian railways, this one seems to have us next to nothing to remind us of its existence. So far it has proved impossible to trace the route with any degree of certainty, not least because almost the whole line lay within what is now the sprawling city of Comodoro Rivadavia.

More photographs
As further photos of this railway come to light they are being added to the following page.

References:
1 Industrial Railways of Argentina (loco lists), revised edition 1998. Reg Carter. 46 Mill St., Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, KT1 2RF. UK.
2 Photo from Libro de Oro - Aniversario 1901-1997 Comodoro Rivadavia. 1997. Ediciones Atlantico.
3
Articles from daily newspaper El Rivadavia, issue of 16 February 1953, quoted in Aventuras Sobre Rieles Patagónicos. 1996. Alejandro Aguado. Published by Duendes del Sur, Comodoro Rivadavia. Comodoro Rivadavia public library does not have the issue reporting the actual accident.
4 Private correspondence, 2001.
5
Unpublished report on the preservation of railway relics including the turntable at Comodoro Rivadavia. 1997. Fiel Michai et al, Curso de Guias de Turismo, C. Rivadavia.
6 Estadística de los Ferrocarriles en Explotación, 1958, p8-9. Information provided by Señor S. Damus.
7 Ken Scanes, on the Industrial Railwway Society Yahoo group in May 2011.
8 Photo reproduced by kind permission of the Comodoro Rivadavia - Fotos Antiguas Facebook group run by Señor Miguel Fiordelli.
9 Aquella Tragedia Ferroviaria Ocurrida en la Patagonia de 1953. booklet by Señor McIntieri. Publisher and date unknown.

Anyone interested in old photos of Comodoro Rivadavia should also visit Miguel Fiordelli's website. A number of his photos are of railway interest and almost all can be viewed in larger sizes by clicking on the thumbnail pictures.

3-9-11

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Estancia & frigorifico lines

Chapter 7

The 1922 75cm gauge empire

Glossary

Site map

RAILWAYS OF THE FAR
RAILWAYS OF THE FAR

Main pages

Grandiose plans

The 1922 locos

The 1922 rolling stock

Railcars

FCCC extensions

FCCC reconstruction photos

FCCC operations

FCCC extra photos

The line to Esquel

Esquel route construction photos

Esquel operations

More Esquel line photos

The Río Negro line

Com. Rivadavia to Punta Piedras

More photos at Com. Rivadavia

Other users of equipment

Appendices

1 List of locos

2 Rolling stock lists

3 The FCCC itinerary

4 The Esquel itinerary

5 The Río Negro itinerary

6 The 1942 FCCC timetable

7 1960 working timetable

8 Plan of Trelew

9 Track layout photos at Ing. Jacobacci

10 Perez report 1925

11 1955 report

12A 1957 report part A

12B 1957 report part B

12C 1957 report part C

12D 1957 report part D

12E 1957 report part E

12F 1957 report part F

13 1959 report

14 Calculos report

15 1961 report

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